6 Fundamental principles of UI Design

Ashish Sharma
3 min readMar 6, 2021

Lets look at the 6 fundamental Principles of User Interface Designs, we need to keep in mind.

  1. Balance
  2. Emphasis/Dominance
  3. Similarity & Contrast
  4. Repetition/Pattern
  5. Harmony/Unity/Proximity
  6. Scale/Proportion


Balance means even distribution of weight enabling someone or something to remain upright and steady. It is a situation in which every element is in a correct proportion.

A feeling of balance results when elements of design are arranged symmetrically or asymmetrically to create the impression of equality in weight or importance.


Emphasis is the strategy to draw viewer’s attention to a specific direction or an element.

This could be an image, a text, a button or any object. We see emphasis used in many fields that could be — Architecture, interior design, fashion design.

We should try show emphasis that do not take much time for a viewer to see, and make the process easy and smooth.


Contrast in design is an accentuation of differences between elements. Applying contrast to a design helps in emphasize or highlight key elements.

Although contrast is applied using opposite colors, contrast is in fact a juxtaposition of various elements of design. It is just a difference in lines, texture or shape can create contrast. The difference between the design is what creates a visual interest.


Pattern strengthens a design by repeating an element in the entire piece. It is a conscious effort to unify all parts of design. It is a great tool, especially in that you can have an army of elements. The user’s eye will trace over the design accepting the orderliness of repetition until, gradually, they may notice something different.

Yes! you can use repetition to draw user’s attention to a specific area of screen. It could be anything — A message you want to convey, or an add you want to show, or something else you want to sponsor.

The pattern or repetition frames it for you, and for them, to great affect.


According to Gestalt psychology, the law of proximity says that we perceive elements that are near to each other as a single group. If you can isolate an element from that group, you can call attention to it, This is your way of shining a spotlight on that “rebel” element, take this cool individual and show why it’s not running in the heard.


Proportion is the relationship of two or more elements in a design and how they compare with one another. Proportion is said to be harmonious when a correct relationship exists between the elements with respect to size or quantity. Good proportion adds harmony, symmetry, or balance among the parts of design.

The effective use of proportion in design is often referred to as harmony, a relationship in which the various elements of the composition appear as if they belong together in size and distribution.



Ashish Sharma

Not just a UX Designer, I love creating stuff ✨ Connect with me via email: ashishsauparna@gmail.com